類別:人文科普/動物生態學.
 (版權窗口 繁體: Mingming  簡體: Mingming  )
Elephants on the Edge: What Animals Teach Us About Humanity
被逼向邊緣的大象:向動物學習人性
作者:Gay Bradshaw
版本: 精裝352頁  2009 年 10 月 6 日  Yale University Press出版
ISBN:978-0300127317
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內容介紹

這本思考縝密的著作為動物創傷專家 Bradshaw博士所著。持有生態學及心理學博士學位的Bradshaw博士,多年觀察受困大象的心理修復過程,並發現眾多與人類相似之處。在本書中,她對照人類與動物文化,解釋大象社會瓦解的深奧議題。

 

大象是一群非常團結的社會動物,大象自古以來依賴母系社會架構存活。然而今天的大象社會卻受人類文明影響,因著戰爭、饑餓、撲殺,及狩獵,原始棲地上的大象從原來數百萬到如今的幾萬;同時,大象的階級制度也被嚴重破壞。被拆散的大象在孤立與分離之中長期受著精神創傷之苦;被留下的幼象缺乏長輩的帶領,無法順利在心智健全的狀態下成長;原始的大象社會結構正因人類的侵略逐漸崩盤。

 

Bradshaw 博士致力探索大象的心智、情感以及生活。她發現,從被捕捉的大象身上,可以觀察到所有同於「創傷後心理壓力緊張症候群」(PTSD)的症狀。受創大象對人類充滿敵意,甚至彼此之間也內戰不斷。這些現象就如同大屠殺、暴力、社會破碎之後的人類行為。Bradshaw 觀察野生大象與被捕大象,發現人類正要目睹古老大象文明的瓦解,卻對此視而不見。

 

Bradshaw 痛心欲絕,寫下此書。從動物創傷、集中營倖存者的心理狀態,以及康拉德.洛倫茲的動物行為等研究分析,譴責大象獵殺者不是。同時也主張釋放動物園、馬戲團裡的大象;呼籲人們支持許多動物保護工作者,包含大象按摩治療師、以及田納西山丘上的大象庇護所。

 

我們不是大象,我們或許無法設身處地地感同深受。然而不管我們和他們是不是全然一樣,我們也都能以人類的歷史經驗看到,人類正將許多痛苦加諸於動物身上。Bradshaw 鼓催人們應用心理學家對待受創者的療程思考動物的處境,並解決這急迫,將會危害全動物——以及全人類的社會與環境危機。

 

 

目錄

 

1. 現存的大象

2. 大象社會中巧妙的網絡關係

3. 這種奇怪的動物

4. 沉積的遺骨

5. 壞孩子

6. 沙發上的大象:案例分析

7. 炒菜鍋的悲哀

8. 原諒的生物學

9. 我是大象嗎?

10. 用舌頭說話

11. 靈魂在哪裡

12. 宏觀數據之上

 

作者介紹

Gay Bradshaw 博士是一位美國心理學家及生態學者,她也是動物保護組織 The Kerulos Center 的創辦人兼董事。她的研究專注在動物受創傷後的恢復過程,以及野生動物自覺運動。她創建物種轉換心理學(trans-species psychology)學術領域,主張人類與非人類動物在認知(思想)與情緒(感覺)上有許多能互相對照的共通性。此領域始於她對野生大象的研究,發現在大象身上也能觀察到創傷後心理壓力緊張症候群(PTSD)的症狀。並于2009年出版《被逼向邊緣的大象》一書。

 

Bradshaw 博士的研究曾被大量媒體報導,包括美國ABC的20/20、德國《亮點》周刊、國家地理雜誌、紐約時報、時代雜誌、《新科學人》周刊、科學雜誌《自然》,及倫敦電報等。她的研究關注曾受逮捕的鸚鵡、大象、黑猩猩,創傷後修復的過程。

 

書評

 "African peoples and wildlife have been bound together in a delicate network of interdependence since ancient times. The arrival of colonialism tore apart these bonds: human brother now fights against elephant brother, and mothers of both species mourn. Elephants on the Edge is an urgent call to end this strife and for humanity to embrace once more the traditions that kept the peace with our animal kin."

Archbishop Emeritus Desmond M. Tutu, 1984 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate

 

"This thoughtful book by animal trauma specialist Bradshaw draws analogies between human and animal culture to illustrate the profound breakdownoccurring in elephant societies. Extraordinarily sensitive and social, elephants' survival has long depended on their matriarchal lineagenow sundered by culling the herds, which disrupts the hierarchyand their psyches have been broken by prolonged isolation and separation, painful hooks used as training tools and general cruelty. Captured elephants meet the criteria of the psychiatirc handbook DSM for suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Drawing on research on animal trauma, concentration camp survivors and Konrad Lorenztype ethology, Bradshaw makes a multidisciplinary condemnation of elephant abuse and celebrates those working on rehabilitating and healing the animalsincluding an elephant massage therapist and the owners of an elephant sanctuary in the Tennessee hills. In the end, anthropomorphizing isn't the issue; Bradshaw says that instead of giving animals human feelings, we should observe that they have feelings that correlate with what we may feel in similar circumstances. With its heartbreaking findings and irrefutable conclusions, this book bears careful reading and consideration."

Publisher's Weekly

 

"This book. . . is fascinating. . . [and] sheds light on disturbing phenomena relevant to the future not only of elephants, but also of humans subjected to similar disruption. Read it.

Robert M. May, Professor Lord May of Oxford OM AC Kt FRS

 

"Bradshaw brings home to us forcefully what we should have realized long ago: that destroying the family life of highly social, intelligent animals leads inevitably to misery among individual survivors and pathological misbehaviour among the group."

J. M. Coetzee, Nobel Laureate in Literature, 2003

 

Revolutionary and very exciting, this book is important both in terms of elephant biology and elephant welfare.

Cynthia Moss, Amboseli Trust for Elephants

 

Elephants on the Edge is very thoroughly researched and beautifully presenteda devastating, scientific chronicle of the ignorance, cruelty, and mismanagement that placed these magnificent creatures in their present dire situation. Among Bradshaws many virtues is that she exposes the cowardice of scientists who are well aware of the damage now in progress but are unwilling to support animal rights or to condemn animal holocausts. We cannot possibly understand the world we live in unless we acknowledge the role we play in its destruction. Should we continue our Nazi-like behavior toward elephants, and indeed, toward any living creatures? Those who read this book wont want to.

Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, author of The Hidden Life of Dogs and of The Old Way: A Story of the First People

 

This book opens the door into the soul of the elephant. It will really make you think about our relationship with other animals.

Temple Grandin, author of Animals in Translation

 

"Elephants on the Edge is a wide-ranging, passionate, well-researched, and urgent call to action. These magnificent, intelligent, and emotional giants are quintessential poster animals for the wounded world in which we live. Read this book, share it widely, and please do something to increase our compassion footprint before it's too late. Healing demands collective cross-cultural action now.

Marc Bekoff, University of Colorado, coauthor with Jessica Pierce of Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals

 

A poignant presentation of the eradication of elephant societies. . . The arguments transcend the subject matter of elephants and herald a new cultural stance on human-animal relationships.

Lori Marino, Emory University

 

At times sad and at times heartwarming, Elephants on the Edge successfully bridges the gap between species. Bradshaw helps us to understand not only elephants, but all animals, including ourselves.

Peter Singer, author of Animal Liberation

 

In Elephants on the Edge, G. A. Bradshaw helps us face our ethically flawed relationship with animals and nature and what is at stake for all of us.

John P. Gluck, University of New Mexico; Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University

 

Gay Bradshaw clearly demonstrates in this fascinating book, which is a groundbreaking and remarkable feat of scholarship, that we cannot understand the tenuous relationship between man and elephant (or any other co-inhabitants of the natural world) without a self-reflective insight into the deeper psychological and ethical substrata of our own minds.

Allan N. Schore, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine University of California at Los Angeles